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Waarom voel pittige kos warm?

Waarom voel pittige kos warm?


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Selfs as dit koud is, is daar 'n rede waarom pittige kos jou tong brand.

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As u ooit heerlike Mexikaanse straatkos geëet het, 'n groot bord Buffalo -vleuels geëet het of in 'n Indiese restaurant was, is u meer as vertroud met die ervaring van loopneus, waterige oë, brandende tong en selfs sweet. met die eet van pittige kos. Maar waarom word u liggaam so warm dat u tong brand van pittige kos, selfs as dit kamertemperatuur of koud is?

Hoe om u kondenslêer te Marie Kondo: wat u moet hou en wat u moet gooi

Die antwoord is redelik eenvoudig: capsaïcine. Capsaïcine is 'n aktiewe bestanddeel in pittige voedsel, en is 'n irritasie. As u pittige kos eet, bind capsaïcine aan reseptore in u mond (bekend as VR1 -reseptore) wat eintlik bedoel is om hitte op te spoor sodat u nie u mond kan verbrand nie. Omdat capsaïcine hierdie reseptore aktiveer, reageer u liggaam soos dit sou as u iets warm geëet het, en as gevolg daarvan sweet u om af te koel, u hartklop styg om metabolisme te verhoog en u neus loop en u oë skeur as gevolg daarvan vir die irriterende.

Alhoewel hierdie reaksies nie juis aangenaam klink nie, stel u liggaam ook endorfiene vry, chemikalieë in u brein wat pyn verlig en geluk verhoog as u pittige kos eet. Dus, as u ooit teleurgesteld is, neem 'n glas melk ('n baie beter alternatief vir die oplos van capsaïcine as water) en eet die lekkerste kosse wat u kan.


Voedselbakterie-spesery-opname toon waarom sommige kulture dit warm hou

Aanhangers van warm, pittige kookkuns kan nare bakterieë en ander voedselverwekkers bedank vir die resepte wat - nie so toevallig nie - uit lande met warm klimate kom. Mense se gebruik van antimikrobiese speserye wat parallel ontwikkel het met voedselbederfmikro-organismes, het bioloë van die Cornell-universiteit getoon in 'n internasionale opname oor die gebruik van speserye in kookkuns.

Dieselfde chemiese verbindings wat die pittigste speserye teen hul natuurlike vyande beskerm, werk vandag in voedsel uit dele van die wêreld waar voedselbederf mikrobes 'n nog ernstiger bedreiging vir menslike gesondheid en oorlewing was as wat dit is vandag, Jennifer Billing en Paul W. Sherman verslag in die Maart 1998 uitgawe van die tydskrif Kwartaallikse oorsig van biologie.

"Die onmiddellike rede vir die gebruik van speserye is natuurlik om die smaaklikheid van voedsel te verbeter," sê Sherman, 'n evolusionêre bioloog en professor in neurobiologie en gedrag by Cornell. "Maar waarom smaak speserye goed? Eienskappe wat voordelig is, word kultureel en geneties oorgedra, en dit sluit smaakreseptore in ons mond en ons smaak vir sekere geure in. Mense wat kos met antibakteriese speserye geniet het, was waarskynlik gesonder, veral in warm klimate. Hulle het langer geleef en meer nakomelinge agtergelaat. En hulle het hul nakomelinge en ander geleer: 'Dit is hoe om 'n mastodon te kook.' Ons glo dat die uiteindelike rede vir die gebruik van speserye die dood van voedselgedraagde bakterieë en swamme is. "

Sherman erken Billing, 'n Cornell-voorgraadse student in biologie ten tyde van die navorsing, met die samestelling van baie van die data wat nodig is om die mikro-speserye-verbinding te maak: Meer as 4,570 resepte uit 93 kookboeke wat tradisionele vleisgebaseerde kookkuns van 36 lande verteenwoordig temperatuur en neerslagvlakke van elke land, die tuinbou -reeks van 43 speserye en die antibakteriese eienskappe van elke spesery.

Dit is byvoorbeeld gevind dat knoffel, ui, piment en oregano die beste bakteriedoders is (dit maak alles dood), gevolg deur tiemie, kaneel, dragon en komyn (waarvan 80 persent bakterieë doodmaak). Capsicums, insluitend brandrissies en ander soetrissies, is in die middel van die antimikrobiese verpakking (vermy of belemmer tot 75 persent van die bakterieë), terwyl peper van die wit of swart variëteit 25 persent van die bakterieë belemmer, net soos gemmer, anysaad, seldery saad en die sappe van suurlemoene en limoen.

Die Cornell-navorsers berig in die artikel: "Lande met 'n warmer klimaat gebruik speserye meer gereeld as lande met 'n koeler klimaat. In warm lande is byna elke vleisgebaseerde resep minstens een spesery nodig, en die meeste bevat baie speserye, veral die sterkste speserye, terwyl in koeler provinsies aansienlike fraksies geregte sonder speserye of met net 'n paar berei word. " As gevolg hiervan is die geraamde fraksie van voedselbederfbakterieë wat deur die speserye in elke resep belemmer word, groter in warm as in koue klimate.

Gevolglik is lande soos Thailand, die Filippyne, Indië en Maleisië bo-aan die lys met warm warm voedsel, terwyl Swede, Finland en Noorweë onderaan staan. Die Verenigde State en China is iewers in die middel, hoewel die Cornell-navorsers hierdie twee lande se kookkuns volgens streek bestudeer het en beduidende breedtegraadverwante korrelasies gevind het. Dit verduidelik hoekom etoufŽe -aalvarger pittiger is as mosselkossies uit New England.

Die bioloë het wel verskeie alternatiewe verklarings vir die gebruik van speserye oorweeg en alles behalwe een afslag gegee. Die probleem met die 'eet-tot-sweet'-hipotese-dat mense op stomende plekke pittige kos eet om af te koel-is dat nie alle speserye mense laat sweet nie, sê Sherman,' en daar is beter maniere om af te koel - soos om in die skaduwee in te beweeg. " Die idee dat mense speserye gebruik om die smaak van bedorwe kos te verdoesel, ignoreer die gesondheidsgevare van die inname van bedorwe kos. En mense eet waarskynlik nie speserye vir hul voedingswaarde nie, sê die bioloog, want dieselfde makrovoedingstowwe is in soortgelyke hoeveelhede beskikbaar in gewone groente, wat in veel groter hoeveelhede geëet word.

Die hipotese van mikrovoedingstowwe-dat speserye spore van antioksidante of ander chemikalieë bevat om vertering te bevorder-kan egter waar wees en kan die antimikrobiese verduideliking steeds nie uitsluit nie, sê Sherman. Hierdie hipotese verduidelik egter nie waarom mense in warm klimate meer mikrovoedingstowwe benodig nie, voeg hy by. Die antimikrobiese hipotese verduidelik dit wel.

Die studie van die Darwiniese gastronomie is 'n bietjie strekking vir 'n evolusionêre bioloog soos Sherman, wat normaalweg sy navorsing fokus op die rol van natuurlike seleksie in sosiale gedrag van diere en wat veral bekend is vir sy studies oor een van die natuur se mees sosiale (en ongewone- wesens, die naakte molrot (Heterocephalus glaber) van Afrika. Maar eet is beslis een van die meer sosiale gedrag van Homo sapienss, hou hy vol, en dit is 'n goeie manier om die interaksie tussen kulturele evolusie en biologiese funksie te sien. "Ek glo dat resepte 'n verslag is van die geskiedenis van die koevolusionêre ras tussen ons en ons parasiete. Die mikrobes ding met ons mee om dieselfde kos," sê Sherman. "Alles wat ons met voedsel doen - droogmaak, kook, rook, sout of speserye byvoeg - is 'n poging om nie deur ons mikroskopiese mededingers vergiftig te word nie. Hulle muteer en ontwikkel voortdurend om voor ons te bly. Een manier waarop ons verminder voedselgedraagde siektes is om nog 'n spesery by die resep te voeg. Dit laat die kos natuurlik anders smaak, en die mense wat die nuwe smaak leer, is gesonder daarvoor. "

Vir die biologiestudent Billing het die speserynavorsing vir 'n senior honneursproefskrif haar na 'n onbekende vakgebied, voedselwetenskap, en na die Cornell University School of Hotel Administration geneem, waar die biblioteek een van die grootste versamelings kookboeke ter wêreld bevat. Noudat die verband tussen bakterieë en speserye onthul word, wil bibliotekarisse oral kookboeke onder 'voedselveiligheid' kruisindekseer. En speserye kan in apteke begin verskyn.

Top 30 speserye met antimikrobiese eienskappe

(Gelys van die grootste tot die minste remming van voedselbederfbakterieë)

Bron: "Antimikrobiese funksies van speserye: waarom sommige daarvan hou," sê Jennifer Billing en Paul W. Sherman, Die kwartaallikse oorsig van biologie, Vol. 73, nr. 1, Maart 1998


Voedselbakterie-spesery-opname toon waarom sommige kulture dit warm hou

Aanhangers van warm, pittige kookkuns kan nare bakterieë en ander patogene wat deur voedsel oorgedra word bedank vir die resepte wat kom - nie so toevallig nie - uit lande met warm klimate. Mense se gebruik van antimikrobiese speserye wat parallel ontwikkel het met voedselbederfmikro-organismes, het bioloë van die Cornell-universiteit getoon in 'n internasionale opname oor die gebruik van speserye in kookkuns.

Dieselfde chemiese verbindings wat die pittigste speserye teen hul natuurlike vyande beskerm, werk vandag in voedsel uit dele van die wêreld waar voedselbederf mikrobes 'n nog ernstiger bedreiging vir menslike gesondheid en oorlewing was as wat dit is vandag, Jennifer Billing en Paul W. Sherman verslag in die Maart 1998 uitgawe van die tydskrif Kwartaallikse oorsig van biologie.

"Die onmiddellike rede vir die gebruik van speserye is natuurlik om die smaaklikheid van voedsel te verbeter," sê Sherman, 'n evolusionêre bioloog en professor in neurobiologie en gedrag by Cornell. "Maar waarom smaak speserye goed? Eienskappe wat voordelig is, word kultureel en geneties oorgedra, en dit sluit smaakreseptore in ons mond en ons smaak vir sekere geure in. Mense wat kos met antibakteriese speserye geniet het, was waarskynlik gesonder, veral in warm klimate. Hulle het langer gelewe en meer nageslag agtergelaat. En hulle het hul nakomelinge en ander geleer: 'Dit is hoe om 'n mastodon te kook.' Ons glo dat die uiteindelike rede vir die gebruik van speserye die dood van voedselgedraagde bakterieë en swamme is. "

Sherman erken Billing, 'n Cornell-voorgraadse student in biologie ten tyde van die navorsing, met die samestelling van baie van die data wat nodig is om die mikro-speserye-verbinding te maak: Meer as 4,570 resepte uit 93 kookboeke wat tradisionele vleisgebaseerde kookkuns van 36 lande verteenwoordig temperatuur en neerslagvlakke van elke land, die tuinbou -reeks van 43 speserye en die antibakteriese eienskappe van elke spesery.

Dit is byvoorbeeld gevind dat knoffel, ui, piment en oregano die beste bakteriedoders is (hulle maak alles dood), gevolg deur tiemie, kaneel, dragon en komyn (waarvan 80 persent bakterieë doodmaak). Capsicums, insluitend brandrissies en ander soetrissies, is in die middel van die antimikrobiese verpakking (vermy of belemmer tot 75 persent van die bakterieë), terwyl peper van die wit of swart variëteit 25 persent van die bakterieë belemmer, net soos gemmer, anysaad, seldery saad en die sappe van suurlemoene en limoen.

Die Cornell-navorsers berig in die artikel: "Lande met warmer klimate gebruik speserye meer gereeld as lande met koeler klimate. In warm lande is byna elke vleisgebaseerde resep minstens een spesery nodig, en die meeste bevat baie speserye, veral die sterkste speserye, terwyl in koeler provinsies aansienlike fraksies geregte sonder speserye of met net 'n paar berei word. " As gevolg hiervan is die geraamde fraksie van voedselbederfbakterieë wat deur die speserye in elke resep belemmer word, groter in warm as in koue klimate.

Gevolglik is lande soos Thailand, die Filippyne, Indië en Maleisië bo-aan die lys met warm warm voedsel, terwyl Swede, Finland en Noorweë onderaan staan. Die Verenigde State en China is iewers in die middel, alhoewel die Cornell-navorsers hierdie twee lande se kookkuns volgens streek bestudeer het en beduidende breedtegraadverwante korrelasies gevind het. Dit verduidelik hoekom etoufŽe -aalvarger pittiger is as mosselkossies uit New England.

Die bioloë het wel verskeie alternatiewe verklarings vir die gebruik van speserye oorweeg en alles behalwe een afslag gegee. Die probleem met die 'eet-tot-sweet'-hipotese-dat mense op stomende plekke pittige kos eet om af te koel-is dat nie alle speserye mense laat sweet nie, sê Sherman,' en daar is beter maniere om af te koel - soos om in die skaduwee in te beweeg. " Die idee dat mense speserye gebruik om die smaak van bedorwe kos te verdoesel, ignoreer die gesondheidsgevare van die inname van bedorwe kos. En mense eet waarskynlik nie speserye vir hul voedingswaarde nie, sê die bioloog, want dieselfde makrovoedingstowwe is in soortgelyke hoeveelhede beskikbaar in gewone groente, wat in veel groter hoeveelhede geëet word.

Die hipotese van mikrovoedingstowwe-dat speserye spore van antioksidante of ander chemikalieë bevat om vertering te bevorder-kan egter waar wees en kan die antimikrobiese verduideliking steeds nie uitsluit nie, sê Sherman. Hierdie hipotese verduidelik egter nie waarom mense in warm klimate meer mikrovoedingstowwe benodig nie, voeg hy by. Die antimikrobiese hipotese verduidelik dit wel.

Die studie van die Darwiniese gastronomie is 'n bietjie rek vir 'n evolusionêre bioloog soos Sherman, wat normaalweg sy navorsing fokus op die rol van natuurlike seleksie in dierlike sosiale gedrag en wat veral bekend is vir sy studies oor een van die natuur se mees sosiale (en ongewone- wesens, die naakte molrot (Heterocephalus glaber) van Afrika. Maar eet is beslis een van die meer sosiale gedrag van Homo sapienss, hou hy vol, en dit is 'n goeie manier om die interaksie tussen kulturele evolusie en biologiese funksie te sien. "Ek glo dat resepte 'n verslag is van die geskiedenis van die koevolusionêre ras tussen ons en ons parasiete. Die mikrobes ding met ons mee om dieselfde kos," sê Sherman. "Alles wat ons met voedsel doen - droogmaak, kook, rook, sout of speserye byvoeg - is 'n poging om te voorkom dat ons vergiftig word deur ons mikroskopiese mededingers. Hulle muteer en ontwikkel voortdurend om voor ons te bly. Een manier waarop ons verminder voedselgedraagde siektes is om nog 'n spesery by die resep te voeg. Dit laat die kos natuurlik anders smaak, en die mense wat die nuwe smaak leer, is gesonder daarvoor. "

Vir die biologiestudent Billing het die speserynavorsing vir 'n senior honneursproefskrif haar na 'n onbekende vakgebied, voedselwetenskap, en na die Cornell University School of Hotel Administration geneem, waar die biblioteek een van die grootste versamelings kookboeke ter wêreld bevat. Noudat die verband tussen bakterieë en speserye onthul word, wil bibliotekarisse oral kookboeke onder 'voedselveiligheid' kruisindekseer. En speserye kan in apteke begin verskyn.

Top 30 speserye met antimikrobiese eienskappe

(Gelys van die grootste tot die minste remming van voedselbederfbakterieë)

Bron: "Antimikrobiese funksies van speserye: waarom sommige daarvan hou," sê Jennifer Billing en Paul W. Sherman, Die kwartaallikse oorsig van biologie, Vol. 73, nr. 1, Maart 1998


Voedselbakterie-spesery-opname toon waarom sommige kulture dit warm hou

Aanhangers van warm, pittige kookkuns kan nare bakterieë en ander voedselverwekkers bedank vir die resepte wat - nie so toevallig nie - uit lande met warm klimate kom. Mense se gebruik van antimikrobiese speserye wat parallel met voedselbederfmikro-organismes ontwikkel is, het bioloë van die Cornell-universiteit getoon in 'n internasionale opname oor die gebruik van speserye in kookkuns.

Dieselfde chemiese verbindings wat die pittigste speserye teen hul natuurlike vyande beskerm, werk vandag in voedsel uit dele van die wêreld waar voedselbederf mikrobes nog 'n ernstiger bedreiging vir menslike gesondheid en oorlewing was as wat dit is vandag, Jennifer Billing en Paul W. Sherman verslag in die Maart 1998 uitgawe van die tydskrif Kwartaallikse oorsig van biologie.

"Die onmiddellike rede vir die gebruik van speserye is natuurlik om die smaaklikheid van voedsel te verbeter," sê Sherman, 'n evolusionêre bioloog en professor in neurobiologie en gedrag by Cornell. "Maar waarom smaak speserye goed? Eienskappe wat voordelig is, word kultureel en geneties oorgedra, en dit sluit smaakreseptore in ons mond en ons smaak vir sekere geure in. Mense wat kos met antibakteriese speserye geniet het, was waarskynlik gesonder, veral in warm klimate. Hulle het langer gelewe en meer nageslag agtergelaat. En hulle het hul nakomelinge en ander geleer: 'Dit is hoe om 'n mastodon te kook.' Ons glo dat die uiteindelike rede vir die gebruik van speserye die dood van voedselgedraagde bakterieë en swamme is. "

Sherman erken Billing, 'n Cornell-voorgraadse student in biologie ten tyde van die navorsing, met die samestelling van baie van die data wat nodig is om die mikro-speserye-verbinding te maak: Meer as 4,570 resepte uit 93 kookboeke wat tradisionele vleisgebaseerde kookkuns van 36 lande verteenwoordig temperatuur en neerslagvlakke van elke land, die tuinbou -reeks van 43 speserye en die antibakteriese eienskappe van elke spesery.

Dit is byvoorbeeld gevind dat knoffel, ui, piment en oregano die beste bakteriedoders is (dit maak alles dood), gevolg deur tiemie, kaneel, dragon en komyn (waarvan 80 persent bakterieë doodmaak). Capsicums, insluitend brandrissies en ander soetrissies, is in die middel van die antimikrobiese verpakking (vermy of belemmer tot 75 persent van die bakterieë), terwyl peper van die wit of swart variëteit 25 persent van die bakterieë belemmer, net soos gemmer, anysaad, seldery saad en die sappe van suurlemoene en limoen.

Die Cornell-navorsers berig in die artikel: "Lande met warmer klimate gebruik speserye meer gereeld as lande met koeler klimate. In warm lande is byna elke vleisgebaseerde resep minstens een spesery nodig, en die meeste bevat baie speserye, veral die sterkste speserye, terwyl in koeler provinsies aansienlike fraksies geregte sonder speserye of met net 'n paar berei word. " Gevolglik is die geraamde fraksie van voedselbederfbakterieë wat deur die speserye in elke resep belemmer word, groter in warm as in koue klimate.

Gevolglik is lande soos Thailand, die Filippyne, Indië en Maleisië bo-aan die lys met warm warm kos, terwyl Swede, Finland en Noorweë onderaan staan. Die Verenigde State en China is iewers in die middel, alhoewel die Cornell-navorsers hierdie twee lande se kookkuns volgens streek bestudeer het en beduidende breedtegraadverwante korrelasies gevind het. Dit help ons om te verduidelik waarom etoufŽe -aartappels pittiger is as mosselkop in New England.

Die bioloë het wel verskeie alternatiewe verklarings vir die gebruik van speserye oorweeg en alles behalwe een afslag gegee. Die probleem met die 'eet-tot-sweet'-hipotese-dat mense op stomende plekke pittige kos eet om af te koel-is dat nie alle speserye mense laat sweet nie, sê Sherman,' en daar is beter maniere om af te koel - soos om in die skaduwee in te beweeg. " Die idee dat mense speserye gebruik om die smaak van bedorwe kos te verdoesel, ignoreer die gesondheidsgevare van die inname van bedorwe kos. En mense eet waarskynlik nie speserye vir hul voedingswaarde nie, sê die bioloog, want dieselfde makrovoedingstowwe is in soortgelyke hoeveelhede beskikbaar in gewone groente, wat in veel groter hoeveelhede geëet word.

Die hipotese van mikrovoedingstowwe-dat speserye spore van antioksidante of ander chemikalieë bevat om vertering te bevorder-kan egter waar wees en kan die antimikrobiese verduideliking steeds nie uitsluit nie, sê Sherman. Hierdie hipotese verduidelik egter nie waarom mense in warm klimate meer mikrovoedingstowwe benodig nie, voeg hy by. Die antimikrobiese hipotese verduidelik dit wel.

Die studie van die Darwiniese gastronomie is 'n bietjie strekking vir 'n evolusionêre bioloog soos Sherman, wat normaalweg sy navorsing fokus op die rol van natuurlike seleksie in sosiale gedrag van diere en wat veral bekend is vir sy studies oor een van die natuur se mees sosiale (en ongewone- wesens, die naakte molrot (Heterocephalus glaber) van Afrika. Maar eet is beslis een van die meer sosiale gedrag van Homo sapienss, hou hy vol, en dit is 'n goeie manier om die interaksie tussen kulturele evolusie en biologiese funksie te sien. "Ek glo dat resepte 'n verslag is van die geskiedenis van die koevolusionêre ras tussen ons en ons parasiete. Die mikrobes ding met ons mee om dieselfde kos," sê Sherman. "Alles wat ons met voedsel doen - droogmaak, kook, rook, sout of speserye byvoeg - is 'n poging om nie deur ons mikroskopiese mededingers vergiftig te word nie. Hulle muteer en ontwikkel voortdurend om voor ons te bly. Een manier waarop ons verminder voedselgedraagde siektes is om nog 'n spesery by die resep te voeg. Dit laat natuurlik die kos anders smaak, en die mense wat die nuwe smaak leer, is gesonder daarvoor. "

Vir die biologiestudent Billing het die speserynavorsing vir 'n senior honneursproefskrif haar na 'n onbekende vakgebied, voedselwetenskap, en na die Cornell University School of Hotel Administration geneem, waar die biblioteek een van die grootste versamelings kookboeke ter wêreld bevat. Noudat die verband tussen bakterieë en speserye onthul word, wil bibliotekarisse oral kookboeke onder 'voedselveiligheid' kruisindekseer. En speserye kan in apteke begin verskyn.

Top 30 speserye met antimikrobiese eienskappe

(Gelys van die grootste tot die minste remming van voedselbederfbakterieë)

Bron: "Antimikrobiese funksies van speserye: waarom sommige daarvan hou," het Jennifer Billing en Paul W. Sherman, Die kwartaallikse oorsig van biologie, Vol. 73, nr. 1, Maart 1998


Voedselbakterie-spesery-opname toon waarom sommige kulture dit warm hou

Aanhangers van warm, pittige kookkuns kan nare bakterieë en ander patogene wat deur voedsel oorgedra word bedank vir die resepte wat kom - nie so toevallig nie - uit lande met warm klimate. Mense se gebruik van antimikrobiese speserye wat parallel ontwikkel het met voedselbederfmikro-organismes, het bioloë van die Cornell-universiteit getoon in 'n internasionale opname oor die gebruik van speserye in kookkuns.

Dieselfde chemiese verbindings wat die pittigste speserye teen hul natuurlike vyande beskerm, werk vandag in voedsel uit dele van die wêreld waar voedselbederf mikrobes 'n nog ernstiger bedreiging vir menslike gesondheid en oorlewing was as wat dit is vandag, Jennifer Billing en Paul W. Sherman verslag in die Maart 1998 uitgawe van die tydskrif Kwartaallikse oorsig van biologie.

"Die onmiddellike rede vir die gebruik van speserye is natuurlik om die smaaklikheid van voedsel te verbeter," sê Sherman, 'n evolusionêre bioloog en professor in neurobiologie en gedrag by Cornell. "Maar waarom smaak speserye goed? Eienskappe wat voordelig is, word kultureel en geneties oorgedra, en dit sluit smaakreseptore in ons mond en ons smaak vir sekere geure in. Mense wat kos met antibakteriese speserye geniet het, was waarskynlik gesonder, veral in warm klimate. Hulle het langer geleef en meer nakomelinge agtergelaat. En hulle het hul nakomelinge en ander geleer: 'Dit is hoe om 'n mastodon te kook.' Ons glo dat die uiteindelike rede vir die gebruik van speserye die dood van voedselgedraagde bakterieë en swamme is. "

Sherman erken Billing, 'n Cornell-voorgraadse student in biologie ten tyde van die navorsing, met die samestelling van baie van die data wat nodig is om die mikro-speserye-verbinding te maak: Meer as 4,570 resepte uit 93 kookboeke wat tradisionele vleisgebaseerde kookkuns van 36 lande verteenwoordig temperatuur en neerslagvlakke van elke land, die tuinbou -reeks van 43 speserye en die antibakteriese eienskappe van elke spesery.

Dit is byvoorbeeld gevind dat knoffel, ui, piment en oregano die beste bakteriedoders is (dit maak alles dood), gevolg deur tiemie, kaneel, dragon en komyn (waarvan 80 persent bakterieë doodmaak). Capsicums, insluitend brandrissies en ander soetrissies, is in die middel van die antimikrobiese verpakking (vermy of belemmer tot 75 persent van die bakterieë), terwyl peper van die wit of swart variëteit 25 persent van die bakterieë belemmer, net soos gemmer, anysaad, seldery saad en die sappe van suurlemoene en limoen.

Die Cornell-navorsers berig in die artikel: "Lande met 'n warmer klimaat gebruik speserye meer gereeld as lande met 'n koeler klimaat. In warm lande is byna elke vleisgebaseerde resep minstens een spesery nodig, en die meeste bevat baie speserye, veral die sterkste speserye, terwyl in koeler provinsies aansienlike fraksies geregte sonder speserye of met net 'n paar berei word. " As gevolg hiervan is die geraamde fraksie van voedselbederfbakterieë wat deur die speserye in elke resep belemmer word, groter in warm as in koue klimate.

Gevolglik is lande soos Thailand, die Filippyne, Indië en Maleisië bo-aan die lys met warm warm kos, terwyl Swede, Finland en Noorweë onderaan staan. Die Verenigde State en China is iewers in die middel, alhoewel die Cornell-navorsers hierdie twee lande se kookkuns volgens streek bestudeer het en beduidende breedtegraadverwante korrelasies gevind het. Dit verduidelik hoekom etoufŽe -aalvarger pittiger is as mosselkossies uit New England.

Die bioloë het wel verskeie alternatiewe verklarings vir die gebruik van speserye oorweeg en alles behalwe een afslag gegee. Die probleem met die 'eet-tot-sweet'-hipotese-dat mense op stomende plekke pittige kos eet om af te koel-is dat nie alle speserye mense laat sweet nie, sê Sherman,' en daar is beter maniere om af te koel - soos om in die skaduwee in te beweeg. " Die idee dat mense speserye gebruik om die smaak van bedorwe kos te verdoesel, ignoreer die gesondheidsgevare van die inname van bedorwe kos. En mense eet waarskynlik nie speserye vir hul voedingswaarde nie, sê die bioloog, want dieselfde makrovoedingstowwe is in soortgelyke hoeveelhede beskikbaar in gewone groente, wat in veel groter hoeveelhede geëet word.

Die hipotese van mikrovoedingstowwe-dat speserye 'n klein hoeveelheid antioksidante of ander chemikalieë verskaf om vertering te bevorder-kan egter waar wees en kan die antimikrobiese verduideliking steeds nie uitsluit nie, sê Sherman. Hierdie hipotese verduidelik egter nie waarom mense in warm klimate meer mikrovoedingstowwe benodig nie, voeg hy by. Die antimikrobiese hipotese verduidelik dit wel.

Die studie van die Darwiniese gastronomie is 'n bietjie rek vir 'n evolusionêre bioloog soos Sherman, wat normaalweg sy navorsing fokus op die rol van natuurlike seleksie in dierlike sosiale gedrag en wat veral bekend is vir sy studies oor een van die natuur se mees sosiale (en ongewone- wesens, die naakte molrot (Heterocephalus glaber) van Afrika. Maar eet is beslis een van die meer sosiale gedrag van Homo sapienss, hou hy vol, en dit is 'n goeie manier om die interaksie tussen kulturele evolusie en biologiese funksie te sien. "Ek glo dat resepte 'n verslag is van die geskiedenis van die koevolusionêre ras tussen ons en ons parasiete. Die mikrobes ding met ons mee om dieselfde kos," sê Sherman. "Alles wat ons met voedsel doen - droogmaak, kook, rook, sout of speserye byvoeg - is 'n poging om nie deur ons mikroskopiese mededingers vergiftig te word nie. Hulle muteer en ontwikkel voortdurend om voor ons te bly. Een manier waarop ons verminder voedselgedraagde siektes is om nog 'n spesery by die resep te voeg. Dit laat die kos natuurlik anders smaak, en die mense wat die nuwe smaak leer, is gesonder daarvoor. "

Vir die biologiestudent Billing het die speserynavorsing vir 'n senior honneursproef haar na 'n onbekende vakgebied, voedselwetenskap, en na die Cornell University School of Hotel Administration geneem, waar die biblioteek een van die grootste versamelings kookboeke ter wêreld bevat. Noudat die verband tussen bakterieë en speserye onthul word, wil bibliotekarisse oral kookboeke onder 'voedselveiligheid' kruisindekseer. En speserye kan in apteke begin verskyn.

Top 30 speserye met antimikrobiese eienskappe

(Gelys van die grootste tot die minste remming van voedselbederfbakterieë)

Bron: "Antimikrobiese funksies van speserye: waarom sommige daarvan hou," sê Jennifer Billing en Paul W. Sherman. Die kwartaallikse oorsig van biologie, Vol. 73, nr. 1, Maart 1998


Voedselbakterie-spesery-opname toon waarom sommige kulture dit warm hou

Aanhangers van warm, pittige kookkuns kan nare bakterieë en ander patogene wat deur voedsel oorgedra word bedank vir die resepte wat kom - nie so toevallig nie - uit lande met warm klimate. Mense se gebruik van antimikrobiese speserye wat parallel met voedselbederfmikro-organismes ontwikkel is, het bioloë van die Cornell-universiteit getoon in 'n internasionale opname oor die gebruik van speserye in kookkuns.

Dieselfde chemiese verbindings wat die pittigste speserye teen hul natuurlike vyande beskerm, werk vandag in voedsel uit dele van die wêreld waar voedselbederwemikrobes 'n ernstiger bedreiging vir menslike gesondheid en oorlewing was as voorheen vandag, Jennifer Billing en Paul W. Sherman verslag in die Maart 1998 uitgawe van die tydskrif Kwartaallikse oorsig van biologie.

"Die onmiddellike rede vir die gebruik van speserye is natuurlik om die smaaklikheid van voedsel te verbeter," sê Sherman, 'n evolusionêre bioloog en professor in neurobiologie en gedrag by Cornell. "Maar waarom smaak speserye goed? Eienskappe wat voordelig is, word kultureel en geneties oorgedra, en dit sluit smaakreseptore in ons mond en ons smaak vir sekere geure in. Mense wat kos met antibakteriese speserye geniet het, was waarskynlik gesonder, veral in warm klimate. Hulle het langer geleef en meer nageslag agtergelaat. En hulle het hul nakomelinge en ander geleer: 'Dit is hoe om 'n mastodon te kook.' Ons glo dat die uiteindelike rede vir die gebruik van speserye die dood van voedselgedraagde bakterieë en swamme is. "

Sherman erken Billing, 'n Cornell-voorgraadse student in biologie ten tyde van die navorsing, met die samestelling van baie van die data wat nodig is om die mikro-speserye-verbinding te maak: Meer as 4,570 resepte uit 93 kookboeke wat tradisionele vleisgebaseerde kookkuns van 36 lande verteenwoordig temperatuur en neerslagvlakke van elke land, die tuinbou -reeks van 43 speserye en die antibakteriese eienskappe van elke spesery.

Dit is byvoorbeeld gevind dat knoffel, ui, piment en oregano die beste bakteriedoders is (hulle maak alles dood), gevolg deur tiemie, kaneel, dragon en komyn (waarvan 80 persent bakterieë doodmaak). Capsicums, insluitend brandrissies en ander soetrissies, is in die middel van die antimikrobiese verpakking (vermy of belemmer tot 75 persent van die bakterieë), terwyl peper van die wit of swart variëteit 25 persent van die bakterieë belemmer, net soos gemmer, anysaad, seldery saad en die sappe van suurlemoene en limoen.

Die Cornell-navorsers berig in die artikel: "Lande met warmer klimate gebruik speserye meer gereeld as lande met koeler klimate. In warm lande is byna elke vleisgebaseerde resep minstens een spesery nodig, en die meeste bevat baie speserye, veral die sterkste speserye, terwyl in koeler provinsies aansienlike fraksies geregte sonder speserye of met net 'n paar berei word. " Gevolglik is die geraamde fraksie van voedselbederfbakterieë wat deur die speserye in elke resep belemmer word, groter in warm as in koue klimate.

Gevolglik is lande soos Thailand, die Filippyne, Indië en Maleisië bo-aan die lys met warm warm kos, terwyl Swede, Finland en Noorweë onderaan staan. Die Verenigde State en China is iewers in die middel, hoewel die Cornell-navorsers hierdie twee lande se kookkuns volgens streek bestudeer het en beduidende breedtegraadverwante korrelasies gevind het. Dit help ons om te verduidelik waarom etrusf etoufŽe pittiger is as mosselkop in New England.

The biologists did consider several alternative explanations for spice use and discounted all but one. The problem with the "eat-to-sweat" hypothesis -- that people in steamy places eat spicy food to cool down with perspiration -- is that not all spices make people sweat, Sherman says, "and there are better ways to cool down -- like moving into the shade." The idea that people use spices to disguise the taste of spoiled food, he says, "ignores the health dangers of ingesting spoiled food." And people probably aren't eating spices for their nutritive value, the biologist says, because the same macronutrients are available in similar amounts in common vegetables, which are eaten in much greater quantities.

However the micronutrient hypothesis -- that spices provide trace amounts of anti-oxidants or other chemicals to aid digestion -- could be true and still not exclude the antimicrobial explanation, Sherman says. However, this hypothesis does not explain why people in hot climates need more micro-nutrients, he adds. The antimicrobial hypothesis does explain this.

The study of Darwinian gastronomy is a bit of a stretch for an evolutionary biologist like Sherman, who normally focuses his research on the role of natural selection in animal social behavior and is best known for his studies of one of nature's most social (and unusual-looking) creatures, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) of Africa. But eating is definitely one of the more social behavior of Homo sapienss, he maintains, and it's a good way to see the interaction between cultural evolution and biological function. "I believe that recipes are a record of the history of the coevolutionary race between us and our parasites. The microbes are competing with us for the same food," Sherman says. "Everything we do with food -- drying, cooking, smoking, salting or adding spices -- is an attempt to keep from being poisoned by our microscopic competitors. They're constantly mutating and evolving to stay ahead of us. One way we reduce food-borne illnesses is to add another spice to the recipe. Of course that makes the food taste different, and the people who learn to like the new taste are healthier for it."

For biology student Billing, the spice research for a senior honors thesis took her to an unfamiliar field, food science, and to the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration, where the library contains one of the world's largest collections of cookbooks. Now that the bacteria-spice connection is revealed, librarians everywhere may want to cross-index cookbooks under "food safety." And spice racks may start appearing in pharmacies.

Top 30 Spices with Antimicrobial Properties

(Listed from greatest to least inhibition of food-spoilage bacteria)

Source: "Antimicrobial Functions of Spices: Why Some Like It Hot," Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman, The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 73, No.1, March 1998


Food bacteria-spice survey shows why some cultures like it hot

Fans of hot, spicy cuisine can thank nasty bacteria and other foodborne pathogens for the recipes that come -- not so coincidentally -- from countries with hot climates. Humans' use of antimicrobial spices developed in parallel with food-spoilage microorganisms, Cornell University biologists have demonstrated in a international survey of spice use in cooking.

The same chemical compounds that protect the spiciest spice plants from their natural enemies are at work today in foods from parts of the world where -- before refrigeration -- food-spoilage microbes were an even more serious threat to human health and survival than they are today, Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman report in the March 1998 issue of the journal Quarterly Review of Biology.

"The proximate reason for spice use obviously is to enhance food palatability," says Sherman, an evolutionary biologist and professor of neurobiology and behavior at Cornell. "But why do spices taste good? Traits that are beneficial are transmitted both culturally and genetically, and that includes taste receptors in our mouths and our taste for certain flavors. People who enjoyed food with antibacterial spices probably were healthier, especially in hot climates. They lived longer and left more offspring. And they taught their offspring and others: 'This is how to cook a mastodon.' We believe the ultimate reason for using spices is to kill food-borne bacteria and fungi."

Sherman credits Billing, a Cornell undergraduate student of biology at the time of the research, with compiling many of the data required to make the microbe-spice connection: More than 4,570 recipes from 93 cookbooks representing traditional, meat-based cuisines of 36 countries the temperature and precipitation levels of each country the horticultural ranges of 43 spice plants and the antibacterial properties of each spice.

Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything), followed by thyme, cinnamon, tarragon and cumin (any of which kill up to 80 percent of bacteria). Capsicums, including chilies and other hot peppers, are in the middle of the antimicrobial pack (killing or inhibiting up to 75 percent of bacteria), while pepper of the white or black variety inhibits 25 percent of bacteria, as do ginger, anise seed, celery seed and the juices of lemons and limes.

The Cornell researchers report in the article, "Countries with hotter climates used spices more frequently than countries with cooler climates. Indeed, in hot countries nearly every meat-based recipe calls for at least one spice, and most include many spices, especially the potent spices, whereas in cooler counties substantial fractions of dishes are prepared without spices, or with just a few." As a result, the estimated fraction of food-spoilage bacteria inhibited by the spices in each recipe is greater in hot than in cold climates.

Accordingly, countries like Thailand, the Philippines, India and Malaysia are at the top of the hot climate-hot food list, while Sweden, Finland and Norway are at the bottom. The United States and China are somewhere in the middle, although the Cornell researchers studied these two countries' cuisines by region and found significant latitude-related correlations. Which helps explain why crawfish etoufŽe is spicier than New England clam chowder.

The biologists did consider several alternative explanations for spice use and discounted all but one. The problem with the "eat-to-sweat" hypothesis -- that people in steamy places eat spicy food to cool down with perspiration -- is that not all spices make people sweat, Sherman says, "and there are better ways to cool down -- like moving into the shade." The idea that people use spices to disguise the taste of spoiled food, he says, "ignores the health dangers of ingesting spoiled food." And people probably aren't eating spices for their nutritive value, the biologist says, because the same macronutrients are available in similar amounts in common vegetables, which are eaten in much greater quantities.

However the micronutrient hypothesis -- that spices provide trace amounts of anti-oxidants or other chemicals to aid digestion -- could be true and still not exclude the antimicrobial explanation, Sherman says. However, this hypothesis does not explain why people in hot climates need more micro-nutrients, he adds. The antimicrobial hypothesis does explain this.

The study of Darwinian gastronomy is a bit of a stretch for an evolutionary biologist like Sherman, who normally focuses his research on the role of natural selection in animal social behavior and is best known for his studies of one of nature's most social (and unusual-looking) creatures, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) of Africa. But eating is definitely one of the more social behavior of Homo sapienss, he maintains, and it's a good way to see the interaction between cultural evolution and biological function. "I believe that recipes are a record of the history of the coevolutionary race between us and our parasites. The microbes are competing with us for the same food," Sherman says. "Everything we do with food -- drying, cooking, smoking, salting or adding spices -- is an attempt to keep from being poisoned by our microscopic competitors. They're constantly mutating and evolving to stay ahead of us. One way we reduce food-borne illnesses is to add another spice to the recipe. Of course that makes the food taste different, and the people who learn to like the new taste are healthier for it."

For biology student Billing, the spice research for a senior honors thesis took her to an unfamiliar field, food science, and to the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration, where the library contains one of the world's largest collections of cookbooks. Now that the bacteria-spice connection is revealed, librarians everywhere may want to cross-index cookbooks under "food safety." And spice racks may start appearing in pharmacies.

Top 30 Spices with Antimicrobial Properties

(Listed from greatest to least inhibition of food-spoilage bacteria)

Source: "Antimicrobial Functions of Spices: Why Some Like It Hot," Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman, The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 73, No.1, March 1998


Food bacteria-spice survey shows why some cultures like it hot

Fans of hot, spicy cuisine can thank nasty bacteria and other foodborne pathogens for the recipes that come -- not so coincidentally -- from countries with hot climates. Humans' use of antimicrobial spices developed in parallel with food-spoilage microorganisms, Cornell University biologists have demonstrated in a international survey of spice use in cooking.

The same chemical compounds that protect the spiciest spice plants from their natural enemies are at work today in foods from parts of the world where -- before refrigeration -- food-spoilage microbes were an even more serious threat to human health and survival than they are today, Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman report in the March 1998 issue of the journal Quarterly Review of Biology.

"The proximate reason for spice use obviously is to enhance food palatability," says Sherman, an evolutionary biologist and professor of neurobiology and behavior at Cornell. "But why do spices taste good? Traits that are beneficial are transmitted both culturally and genetically, and that includes taste receptors in our mouths and our taste for certain flavors. People who enjoyed food with antibacterial spices probably were healthier, especially in hot climates. They lived longer and left more offspring. And they taught their offspring and others: 'This is how to cook a mastodon.' We believe the ultimate reason for using spices is to kill food-borne bacteria and fungi."

Sherman credits Billing, a Cornell undergraduate student of biology at the time of the research, with compiling many of the data required to make the microbe-spice connection: More than 4,570 recipes from 93 cookbooks representing traditional, meat-based cuisines of 36 countries the temperature and precipitation levels of each country the horticultural ranges of 43 spice plants and the antibacterial properties of each spice.

Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything), followed by thyme, cinnamon, tarragon and cumin (any of which kill up to 80 percent of bacteria). Capsicums, including chilies and other hot peppers, are in the middle of the antimicrobial pack (killing or inhibiting up to 75 percent of bacteria), while pepper of the white or black variety inhibits 25 percent of bacteria, as do ginger, anise seed, celery seed and the juices of lemons and limes.

The Cornell researchers report in the article, "Countries with hotter climates used spices more frequently than countries with cooler climates. Indeed, in hot countries nearly every meat-based recipe calls for at least one spice, and most include many spices, especially the potent spices, whereas in cooler counties substantial fractions of dishes are prepared without spices, or with just a few." As a result, the estimated fraction of food-spoilage bacteria inhibited by the spices in each recipe is greater in hot than in cold climates.

Accordingly, countries like Thailand, the Philippines, India and Malaysia are at the top of the hot climate-hot food list, while Sweden, Finland and Norway are at the bottom. The United States and China are somewhere in the middle, although the Cornell researchers studied these two countries' cuisines by region and found significant latitude-related correlations. Which helps explain why crawfish etoufŽe is spicier than New England clam chowder.

The biologists did consider several alternative explanations for spice use and discounted all but one. The problem with the "eat-to-sweat" hypothesis -- that people in steamy places eat spicy food to cool down with perspiration -- is that not all spices make people sweat, Sherman says, "and there are better ways to cool down -- like moving into the shade." The idea that people use spices to disguise the taste of spoiled food, he says, "ignores the health dangers of ingesting spoiled food." And people probably aren't eating spices for their nutritive value, the biologist says, because the same macronutrients are available in similar amounts in common vegetables, which are eaten in much greater quantities.

However the micronutrient hypothesis -- that spices provide trace amounts of anti-oxidants or other chemicals to aid digestion -- could be true and still not exclude the antimicrobial explanation, Sherman says. However, this hypothesis does not explain why people in hot climates need more micro-nutrients, he adds. The antimicrobial hypothesis does explain this.

The study of Darwinian gastronomy is a bit of a stretch for an evolutionary biologist like Sherman, who normally focuses his research on the role of natural selection in animal social behavior and is best known for his studies of one of nature's most social (and unusual-looking) creatures, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) of Africa. But eating is definitely one of the more social behavior of Homo sapienss, he maintains, and it's a good way to see the interaction between cultural evolution and biological function. "I believe that recipes are a record of the history of the coevolutionary race between us and our parasites. The microbes are competing with us for the same food," Sherman says. "Everything we do with food -- drying, cooking, smoking, salting or adding spices -- is an attempt to keep from being poisoned by our microscopic competitors. They're constantly mutating and evolving to stay ahead of us. One way we reduce food-borne illnesses is to add another spice to the recipe. Of course that makes the food taste different, and the people who learn to like the new taste are healthier for it."

For biology student Billing, the spice research for a senior honors thesis took her to an unfamiliar field, food science, and to the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration, where the library contains one of the world's largest collections of cookbooks. Now that the bacteria-spice connection is revealed, librarians everywhere may want to cross-index cookbooks under "food safety." And spice racks may start appearing in pharmacies.

Top 30 Spices with Antimicrobial Properties

(Listed from greatest to least inhibition of food-spoilage bacteria)

Source: "Antimicrobial Functions of Spices: Why Some Like It Hot," Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman, The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 73, No.1, March 1998


Food bacteria-spice survey shows why some cultures like it hot

Fans of hot, spicy cuisine can thank nasty bacteria and other foodborne pathogens for the recipes that come -- not so coincidentally -- from countries with hot climates. Humans' use of antimicrobial spices developed in parallel with food-spoilage microorganisms, Cornell University biologists have demonstrated in a international survey of spice use in cooking.

The same chemical compounds that protect the spiciest spice plants from their natural enemies are at work today in foods from parts of the world where -- before refrigeration -- food-spoilage microbes were an even more serious threat to human health and survival than they are today, Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman report in the March 1998 issue of the journal Quarterly Review of Biology.

"The proximate reason for spice use obviously is to enhance food palatability," says Sherman, an evolutionary biologist and professor of neurobiology and behavior at Cornell. "But why do spices taste good? Traits that are beneficial are transmitted both culturally and genetically, and that includes taste receptors in our mouths and our taste for certain flavors. People who enjoyed food with antibacterial spices probably were healthier, especially in hot climates. They lived longer and left more offspring. And they taught their offspring and others: 'This is how to cook a mastodon.' We believe the ultimate reason for using spices is to kill food-borne bacteria and fungi."

Sherman credits Billing, a Cornell undergraduate student of biology at the time of the research, with compiling many of the data required to make the microbe-spice connection: More than 4,570 recipes from 93 cookbooks representing traditional, meat-based cuisines of 36 countries the temperature and precipitation levels of each country the horticultural ranges of 43 spice plants and the antibacterial properties of each spice.

Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything), followed by thyme, cinnamon, tarragon and cumin (any of which kill up to 80 percent of bacteria). Capsicums, including chilies and other hot peppers, are in the middle of the antimicrobial pack (killing or inhibiting up to 75 percent of bacteria), while pepper of the white or black variety inhibits 25 percent of bacteria, as do ginger, anise seed, celery seed and the juices of lemons and limes.

The Cornell researchers report in the article, "Countries with hotter climates used spices more frequently than countries with cooler climates. Indeed, in hot countries nearly every meat-based recipe calls for at least one spice, and most include many spices, especially the potent spices, whereas in cooler counties substantial fractions of dishes are prepared without spices, or with just a few." As a result, the estimated fraction of food-spoilage bacteria inhibited by the spices in each recipe is greater in hot than in cold climates.

Accordingly, countries like Thailand, the Philippines, India and Malaysia are at the top of the hot climate-hot food list, while Sweden, Finland and Norway are at the bottom. The United States and China are somewhere in the middle, although the Cornell researchers studied these two countries' cuisines by region and found significant latitude-related correlations. Which helps explain why crawfish etoufŽe is spicier than New England clam chowder.

The biologists did consider several alternative explanations for spice use and discounted all but one. The problem with the "eat-to-sweat" hypothesis -- that people in steamy places eat spicy food to cool down with perspiration -- is that not all spices make people sweat, Sherman says, "and there are better ways to cool down -- like moving into the shade." The idea that people use spices to disguise the taste of spoiled food, he says, "ignores the health dangers of ingesting spoiled food." And people probably aren't eating spices for their nutritive value, the biologist says, because the same macronutrients are available in similar amounts in common vegetables, which are eaten in much greater quantities.

However the micronutrient hypothesis -- that spices provide trace amounts of anti-oxidants or other chemicals to aid digestion -- could be true and still not exclude the antimicrobial explanation, Sherman says. However, this hypothesis does not explain why people in hot climates need more micro-nutrients, he adds. The antimicrobial hypothesis does explain this.

The study of Darwinian gastronomy is a bit of a stretch for an evolutionary biologist like Sherman, who normally focuses his research on the role of natural selection in animal social behavior and is best known for his studies of one of nature's most social (and unusual-looking) creatures, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) of Africa. But eating is definitely one of the more social behavior of Homo sapienss, he maintains, and it's a good way to see the interaction between cultural evolution and biological function. "I believe that recipes are a record of the history of the coevolutionary race between us and our parasites. The microbes are competing with us for the same food," Sherman says. "Everything we do with food -- drying, cooking, smoking, salting or adding spices -- is an attempt to keep from being poisoned by our microscopic competitors. They're constantly mutating and evolving to stay ahead of us. One way we reduce food-borne illnesses is to add another spice to the recipe. Of course that makes the food taste different, and the people who learn to like the new taste are healthier for it."

For biology student Billing, the spice research for a senior honors thesis took her to an unfamiliar field, food science, and to the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration, where the library contains one of the world's largest collections of cookbooks. Now that the bacteria-spice connection is revealed, librarians everywhere may want to cross-index cookbooks under "food safety." And spice racks may start appearing in pharmacies.

Top 30 Spices with Antimicrobial Properties

(Listed from greatest to least inhibition of food-spoilage bacteria)

Source: "Antimicrobial Functions of Spices: Why Some Like It Hot," Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman, The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 73, No.1, March 1998


Food bacteria-spice survey shows why some cultures like it hot

Fans of hot, spicy cuisine can thank nasty bacteria and other foodborne pathogens for the recipes that come -- not so coincidentally -- from countries with hot climates. Humans' use of antimicrobial spices developed in parallel with food-spoilage microorganisms, Cornell University biologists have demonstrated in a international survey of spice use in cooking.

The same chemical compounds that protect the spiciest spice plants from their natural enemies are at work today in foods from parts of the world where -- before refrigeration -- food-spoilage microbes were an even more serious threat to human health and survival than they are today, Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman report in the March 1998 issue of the journal Quarterly Review of Biology.

"The proximate reason for spice use obviously is to enhance food palatability," says Sherman, an evolutionary biologist and professor of neurobiology and behavior at Cornell. "But why do spices taste good? Traits that are beneficial are transmitted both culturally and genetically, and that includes taste receptors in our mouths and our taste for certain flavors. People who enjoyed food with antibacterial spices probably were healthier, especially in hot climates. They lived longer and left more offspring. And they taught their offspring and others: 'This is how to cook a mastodon.' We believe the ultimate reason for using spices is to kill food-borne bacteria and fungi."

Sherman credits Billing, a Cornell undergraduate student of biology at the time of the research, with compiling many of the data required to make the microbe-spice connection: More than 4,570 recipes from 93 cookbooks representing traditional, meat-based cuisines of 36 countries the temperature and precipitation levels of each country the horticultural ranges of 43 spice plants and the antibacterial properties of each spice.

Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything), followed by thyme, cinnamon, tarragon and cumin (any of which kill up to 80 percent of bacteria). Capsicums, including chilies and other hot peppers, are in the middle of the antimicrobial pack (killing or inhibiting up to 75 percent of bacteria), while pepper of the white or black variety inhibits 25 percent of bacteria, as do ginger, anise seed, celery seed and the juices of lemons and limes.

The Cornell researchers report in the article, "Countries with hotter climates used spices more frequently than countries with cooler climates. Indeed, in hot countries nearly every meat-based recipe calls for at least one spice, and most include many spices, especially the potent spices, whereas in cooler counties substantial fractions of dishes are prepared without spices, or with just a few." As a result, the estimated fraction of food-spoilage bacteria inhibited by the spices in each recipe is greater in hot than in cold climates.

Accordingly, countries like Thailand, the Philippines, India and Malaysia are at the top of the hot climate-hot food list, while Sweden, Finland and Norway are at the bottom. The United States and China are somewhere in the middle, although the Cornell researchers studied these two countries' cuisines by region and found significant latitude-related correlations. Which helps explain why crawfish etoufŽe is spicier than New England clam chowder.

The biologists did consider several alternative explanations for spice use and discounted all but one. The problem with the "eat-to-sweat" hypothesis -- that people in steamy places eat spicy food to cool down with perspiration -- is that not all spices make people sweat, Sherman says, "and there are better ways to cool down -- like moving into the shade." The idea that people use spices to disguise the taste of spoiled food, he says, "ignores the health dangers of ingesting spoiled food." And people probably aren't eating spices for their nutritive value, the biologist says, because the same macronutrients are available in similar amounts in common vegetables, which are eaten in much greater quantities.

However the micronutrient hypothesis -- that spices provide trace amounts of anti-oxidants or other chemicals to aid digestion -- could be true and still not exclude the antimicrobial explanation, Sherman says. However, this hypothesis does not explain why people in hot climates need more micro-nutrients, he adds. The antimicrobial hypothesis does explain this.

The study of Darwinian gastronomy is a bit of a stretch for an evolutionary biologist like Sherman, who normally focuses his research on the role of natural selection in animal social behavior and is best known for his studies of one of nature's most social (and unusual-looking) creatures, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) of Africa. But eating is definitely one of the more social behavior of Homo sapienss, he maintains, and it's a good way to see the interaction between cultural evolution and biological function. "I believe that recipes are a record of the history of the coevolutionary race between us and our parasites. The microbes are competing with us for the same food," Sherman says. "Everything we do with food -- drying, cooking, smoking, salting or adding spices -- is an attempt to keep from being poisoned by our microscopic competitors. They're constantly mutating and evolving to stay ahead of us. One way we reduce food-borne illnesses is to add another spice to the recipe. Of course that makes the food taste different, and the people who learn to like the new taste are healthier for it."

For biology student Billing, the spice research for a senior honors thesis took her to an unfamiliar field, food science, and to the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration, where the library contains one of the world's largest collections of cookbooks. Now that the bacteria-spice connection is revealed, librarians everywhere may want to cross-index cookbooks under "food safety." And spice racks may start appearing in pharmacies.

Top 30 Spices with Antimicrobial Properties

(Listed from greatest to least inhibition of food-spoilage bacteria)

Source: "Antimicrobial Functions of Spices: Why Some Like It Hot," Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman, The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 73, No.1, March 1998


Food bacteria-spice survey shows why some cultures like it hot

Fans of hot, spicy cuisine can thank nasty bacteria and other foodborne pathogens for the recipes that come -- not so coincidentally -- from countries with hot climates. Humans' use of antimicrobial spices developed in parallel with food-spoilage microorganisms, Cornell University biologists have demonstrated in a international survey of spice use in cooking.

The same chemical compounds that protect the spiciest spice plants from their natural enemies are at work today in foods from parts of the world where -- before refrigeration -- food-spoilage microbes were an even more serious threat to human health and survival than they are today, Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman report in the March 1998 issue of the journal Quarterly Review of Biology.

"The proximate reason for spice use obviously is to enhance food palatability," says Sherman, an evolutionary biologist and professor of neurobiology and behavior at Cornell. "But why do spices taste good? Traits that are beneficial are transmitted both culturally and genetically, and that includes taste receptors in our mouths and our taste for certain flavors. People who enjoyed food with antibacterial spices probably were healthier, especially in hot climates. They lived longer and left more offspring. And they taught their offspring and others: 'This is how to cook a mastodon.' We believe the ultimate reason for using spices is to kill food-borne bacteria and fungi."

Sherman credits Billing, a Cornell undergraduate student of biology at the time of the research, with compiling many of the data required to make the microbe-spice connection: More than 4,570 recipes from 93 cookbooks representing traditional, meat-based cuisines of 36 countries the temperature and precipitation levels of each country the horticultural ranges of 43 spice plants and the antibacterial properties of each spice.

Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything), followed by thyme, cinnamon, tarragon and cumin (any of which kill up to 80 percent of bacteria). Capsicums, including chilies and other hot peppers, are in the middle of the antimicrobial pack (killing or inhibiting up to 75 percent of bacteria), while pepper of the white or black variety inhibits 25 percent of bacteria, as do ginger, anise seed, celery seed and the juices of lemons and limes.

The Cornell researchers report in the article, "Countries with hotter climates used spices more frequently than countries with cooler climates. Indeed, in hot countries nearly every meat-based recipe calls for at least one spice, and most include many spices, especially the potent spices, whereas in cooler counties substantial fractions of dishes are prepared without spices, or with just a few." As a result, the estimated fraction of food-spoilage bacteria inhibited by the spices in each recipe is greater in hot than in cold climates.

Accordingly, countries like Thailand, the Philippines, India and Malaysia are at the top of the hot climate-hot food list, while Sweden, Finland and Norway are at the bottom. The United States and China are somewhere in the middle, although the Cornell researchers studied these two countries' cuisines by region and found significant latitude-related correlations. Which helps explain why crawfish etoufŽe is spicier than New England clam chowder.

The biologists did consider several alternative explanations for spice use and discounted all but one. The problem with the "eat-to-sweat" hypothesis -- that people in steamy places eat spicy food to cool down with perspiration -- is that not all spices make people sweat, Sherman says, "and there are better ways to cool down -- like moving into the shade." The idea that people use spices to disguise the taste of spoiled food, he says, "ignores the health dangers of ingesting spoiled food." And people probably aren't eating spices for their nutritive value, the biologist says, because the same macronutrients are available in similar amounts in common vegetables, which are eaten in much greater quantities.

However the micronutrient hypothesis -- that spices provide trace amounts of anti-oxidants or other chemicals to aid digestion -- could be true and still not exclude the antimicrobial explanation, Sherman says. However, this hypothesis does not explain why people in hot climates need more micro-nutrients, he adds. The antimicrobial hypothesis does explain this.

The study of Darwinian gastronomy is a bit of a stretch for an evolutionary biologist like Sherman, who normally focuses his research on the role of natural selection in animal social behavior and is best known for his studies of one of nature's most social (and unusual-looking) creatures, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) of Africa. But eating is definitely one of the more social behavior of Homo sapienss, he maintains, and it's a good way to see the interaction between cultural evolution and biological function. "I believe that recipes are a record of the history of the coevolutionary race between us and our parasites. The microbes are competing with us for the same food," Sherman says. "Everything we do with food -- drying, cooking, smoking, salting or adding spices -- is an attempt to keep from being poisoned by our microscopic competitors. They're constantly mutating and evolving to stay ahead of us. One way we reduce food-borne illnesses is to add another spice to the recipe. Of course that makes the food taste different, and the people who learn to like the new taste are healthier for it."

For biology student Billing, the spice research for a senior honors thesis took her to an unfamiliar field, food science, and to the Cornell University School of Hotel Administration, where the library contains one of the world's largest collections of cookbooks. Now that the bacteria-spice connection is revealed, librarians everywhere may want to cross-index cookbooks under "food safety." And spice racks may start appearing in pharmacies.

Top 30 Spices with Antimicrobial Properties

(Listed from greatest to least inhibition of food-spoilage bacteria)

Source: "Antimicrobial Functions of Spices: Why Some Like It Hot," Jennifer Billing and Paul W. Sherman, The Quarterly Review of Biology, Vol. 73, No.1, March 1998



Kommentaar:

  1. Connie

    Baie nuttige onderwerp

  2. Vinsone

    I advise to you to visit a site on which there are many articles on this question.



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